Here we’ll consider strategies for expanding the summary that is basic conclusion.

Here we’ll consider strategies for expanding the summary that is basic conclusion.

But two words of advice are in order. First, no matter how clever or beautifully executed, a conclusion cannot salvage a poorly written paper. Second, by virtue of its placement, the conclusion carries weight that is rhetorical. This is the statement that is last reader will encounter before turning from your work. Realizing this, writers who expand from the summary-conclusion that is basic desire to give their final words a dramatic flourish, a heightened standard of diction. Soaring rhetoric and drama in a conclusion are fine as long as they do not unbalance the paper and call awareness of themselves. Having labored hours that are long your paper, you’ve got every right to wax eloquent. But keep a sense of proportion and timing. Make your points quickly and end crisply.

Statement of the Subject’s Significance

One of the most effective how to conclude a paper would be to discuss the larger need for that which you have written, providing readers with yet another reason to regard your projects as a effort that is serious. When making use of this plan, you move through the concern that is specific of paper towards the broader concerns for the reader’s world. Often, you shall need to choose among a range of significances: A paper regarding the Wright brothers might end with a discussion of air travel because it affects economies, politics, or families; a paper on contraception might end with a discussion of the impact on sexual mores, population, or the church. But don’t overwhelm your reader using the importance of your remarks. Keep your discussion well focused.

The paragraphs that are following a paper on George H. Shull, a pioneer within the inbreeding and crossbreeding of corn:

. . . Thus, the hybrids developed and described by Shull 75 years back have finally dominated U.S. corn production.

The adoption of hybrid corn was steady and dramatic in the Corn Belt. From 1930 through 1979 the typical yields of corn into the U.S. increased from 21.9 to 95.1 bushels per acre, and also the additional value to the farmer is now several billion dollars each year.

The success of hybrid corn has also stimulated the breeding of other crops, such as for instance sorghum hybrids, a feed that is major crop in arid components of the entire world. Sorghum yields have increased 300 percent since 1930. Approximately 20 percent associated with the land specialized in rice production in China is planted with hybrid seed, that will be reported to yield 20 percent more than the best varieties. And lots of superior kinds of tomatoes, cucumbers, spinach, as well as other vegetables are hybrids. Today practically all corn stated in the countries that are developed from hybrid seed. From those blue bloods for the plant kingdom has come a model for feeding the entire world. 10

The first sentence of this conclusion is a summary, and from it the reader can infer that the paper included a discussion of Shull’s approaches for the hybrid breeding of corn. The summary is followed closely by a two-paragraph discussion on the significance of Shull’s research for feeding the entire world.

Call for Further Research

In the scientific and social communities that are scientific papers often end with overview of what happens to be presented (as, by way of example, in an experiment) plus the ways that the subject into consideration has to be further explored. If you raise questions which you turn to others to resolve, however, make sure you know that the study you are calling for has not recently been conducted.

This conclusion that is next from a sociological report regarding the placement of elderly both women and men in assisted living facilities.

Thus, our study shows a correlation between the placement of elderly citizens in nursing facilities additionally the significant decline of the motor and intellectual skills within the ten months placement that is following. What the research has not made clear is the extent to which this marked decline is as a result of physical rather than emotional causes. The elderly are referred to homes at that time inside their lives once they grow less able to take care of themselves – which suggests that the drop-off in skills may be as a result of physical causes. But the stress that is emotional of positioned in a property, far from family and in an environment that confirms the patient’s view of himself as decrepit, may exacerbate – if not itself be a primary cause of – the patient’s rapid loss in abilities. Further research is needed to clarify the partnership between depression and particular ailments that are physical these affect the skills for the elderly in nursing facilities. There is doubt that is little information yielded by such studies can enable health care professionals to supply far better services.

Notice how this call for further study locates the writer in a community that is large of on whom she depends for assistance in answering the questions that have come out of her very own work. The author summarizes her findings (when you look at the first sentence of this paragraph), states what her work has not shown, and then extends her invitation.

The purpose of your paper may be to examine a problem or controversy and to discuss factors that are contributing. This kind of a full case, it would be appropriate, after summarizing your discussion, to supply an answer based on the knowledge you have gained while conducting research. When your solution is to be taken seriously, your understanding should be amply demonstrated in the human body associated with the paper.

. . . The problem that is major college sports today just isn’t commercialism – it is the exploitation of athletes therefore the proliferation of illicit practices which dilute educational standards.

Many universities are currently deriving substantial benefits from sports programs that depend on the labor of athletes drawn from the poorest parts of America’s population. It will be the responsibility of educators, civil rights leaders, and concerned citizens to see that these young people get a return that is fair their labor in both terms of direct remuneration plus in terms of career preparation for a life outside sports.

Minimally, scholarships in revenue-producing sports should always be built to extend until graduation, in the place of covering only four years of athletic eligibility, and may include guarantees of tutoring, counseling, and proper health care. At institutions in which the profits are particularly large (such as Texas A &M, that could afford to pay its football coach $280,000 a , scholarships should also provide salaries that extend beyond room, board, and tuition year. The main thing is the fact that the athlete be remunerated fairly and also have the opportunity to achieve skills from a university environment without undue competition from a physically and psychologically demanding job that is full-time. This could well require that scholarships be extended over five or six years, including summers.

Such a proposal, I suspect, won’t be simple to implement. The amateur that is current, despite its moral and educational flaws, enables universities to engage their athletic labor at minimal cost. But solving the fiscal crisis for the universities on the backs of America’s poor and minorities is certainly not, over time, a solution that is tenable. With the support of concerned educators, parents, and civil rights leaders, along with the assistance from organized labor, the college athlete, truly a sleeping giant, will someday speak out and demand what exactly is rightly his – and hers – a good share of this revenue developed by their hard work. 11

In this conclusion, the author summarizes his article in a single sentence: “the most important problem in college sports today just isn’t commercialism – it will be the exploitation of athletes therefore the proliferation of illicit practices which dilute educational standards.” In paragraph 2, he continues with an analysis regarding the problem just stated and follows with a general recommendation – that “educators, civil rights leaders, and concerned citizens” be accountable for the welfare of college athletes. In paragraph 3, he makes a specific proposal, and in the ultimate paragraph, he anticipates resistance to the proposal. He concludes by discounting this resistance and returning to the typical point, that college athletes should receive a fair deal.

An anecdote is a briefly told story or joke, the true point of which in a conclusion is to shed light on the subject. The anecdote is more direct than an allusion. With an allusion, you just relate to a story (“Too many people today reside in Plato’s cave . . .”); using the anecdote, you actually retell the storyline. The anecdote allows readers to realize because they get to exercise their creativity for themselves the significance of a reference to another source – an effort most readers enjoy.